Category Archives: Video

Understanding SCTE-35

Introduction SCTE-35 is a standard to signal an advertisement (ad) insertion opportunity in a transport stream. This relatively short standard document is, however, difficult to understand without the insight of ad insertion workflow. This article explains the standard text with … Continue reading

Posted in Video | Tagged , , | 21 Comments

Make your first HEVC stream

This article shows how to encode your video with HM (HEVC Test Model (HM)), the reference implementation developed by the standard organizations. HM is provided as a source code so that we can build on various platforms. But let’s focus … Continue reading

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Find the MPEG output order from decoding order

Suppose there is a MPEG picture sequence and you know the decoding order. How do you get the output order (=presentation order)? Assuming every picture is a frame structure, we can use the following method. Imagine a ditch. Only I … Continue reading

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HEVC – What are CTU, CU, CTB, CB, PB, and TB?

HEVC, also known as H.265 or MPEG-H part 2(ISO/IEC 23008-2), is just around the corner. A good overview was published. The reference implementation is available. Active discussion can be read in the JCT-VC document management system. The Final Draft International … Continue reading

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HRD Emulator in HTML5

Just like MPEG-2 video uses VBV (Video Buffer Verifier), H.264 standard uses┬áHRD (Hypothetical Reference Decoder) to define correctness of streams. One of the verification provided by HRD is CPB buffer fullness. The idea is simple; feed H.264 stream to HRD … Continue reading

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TTML is a new way to put text (caption and/or subtitle) in Web video. The standard is published by W3C ( It’s a lengthy standard – it could be difficult to answer even simple questions like these. What does it … Continue reading

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Understand H.264 Time Code

SMPTE12M specifies time code counting rules only for broadcast frame rates such as 29.97 fps. We can calculate the timing information from time code with the knowledge of frame rate and the time code counting rule in use. Generally speaking, … Continue reading

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